Colon Cancer

What is colon cancer?
Symptoms
When to see a doctor
Risk factors
Prevention

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What is colon cancer?

Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon. Together, they’re often referred to as colorectal cancers.

Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Over time, some of these polyps may become colon cancers.

Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. For this reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying polyps before they become colon cancer

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Symptoms

  • A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool
  • Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
  • Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain
  • A feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss

Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they’ll likely vary, depending on the cancer’s size and location in your large intestine.

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When to See a Doctor

If you notice any symptoms of colon cancer, such as blood in your stool or a persistent change in bowel habits, make an appointment with your doctor.

Talk to your doctor about when you should begin screening for colon cancer. Guidelines generally recommend colon cancer screenings begin at age 50. Your doctor may recommend more frequent or earlier screening if you have other risk factors, such as a family history of the disease.

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Risk Factors

  • Older age
  • African-American race
  • A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps
  • Inflammatory intestinal conditions
  • Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk
  • Family history of colon cancer and colon polyps
  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet
  • A sedentary lifestyle
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Radiation therapy for cancer

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Prevention

  • Get screened for colon cancer.
  • People with an average risk of colon cancer can consider screening beginning at age 50.

But people with an increased risk, such as those with a family history of colon cancer, should consider screening sooner. African-Americans and American Indians may begin colon cancer screening at age 45.